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1st August, 2023

Is Free Will Just an Illusion?

Benjamin Libet was an American neuroscientist and a pioneer in the field of human consciousness. 

He conducted experiments in which participants were attached to an EEG machine via electrodes on their scalp to measure brain activity. 

Volunteers performed simple tasks like moving a finger and noting the position on a clock-like face of the time of the decision to move.

Disconcertingly, Libet found evidence of brain activity initiating movement about 350 milliseconds before the conscious decision was noted. 

Therefore,  the  conscious  decision  did  not  cause the movement as  the brain activity

bringing this about started to happen before the individual was consciously aware of it.

Libet concluded that we might not have free will as we usually think of it but rather "free won't",  an ability to consciously veto an action already started in the brain. This vetoing occurs when we intend to do something but do not, but are we aware of the exact moment the decision to veto was first made?

Libet’s theory fits in very neatly with BWRT because it answers the questions many of us struggle with, namely, “Why do I keep doing this?”, “why is this a problem for me?”, “Why do I think this way?” and why willpower alone doesn’t overcome our issues.

If the concept of good or bad for you does not exist, as far as the earliest threads in the neural pathway are concerned, instead,  pattern matching and speed are everything, we can then explain to the client why they respond in the same way despite their best efforts not to. 

2nd August, 2023

Anxiety - A Thinner Version of Fear

Stress can take many guises:-  

‘Headless Chicken’:-The fear of making the wrong decision and not knowing which way to turn. The feeling of being pulled in two or more directions at once.

Workload:- Having too much to do and not enough time to do it. The fear of being seen to be inefficient. 

Demands too great for the level of skill possessed:- This is often work-related, where the individual fears they do not have the skills required or the skills they perceive are required. A fear of looking foolish and letting others down.

Excessively High Expectation of Self:- This is probably the most common. Success is dismissed as a fluke or downplayed, and any failure is obsessed over.   Sufferers   will   

set higher standards for themselves than they would for others and believe it is only a matter of time before they are ‘found out’. It is also known as Imposter Syndrome

Guilt: - The guilt is often unwarranted or out of proportion to the perceived ‘crime’. It gives rise to feelings of doom, paranoia and persecution. Again, the fear is of being found out.  

Situations where an individual feels uncomfortable:-  The ancient fight/flight response will have been triggered, a natural response, where action of some sort is perceived as needed. 

Fear is at the root of it…

Fear of looking stupid, being found out, loss of integrity, being caught out, punishment, physical pain and many more.

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Sometimes the fear is accompanied by a physical response such as diarrhoea, nausea, hyperventilation etc.

As far as BWRT is concerned, we do not need to track down the original event that caused the fear (often called the Initial Sensitising Event, or ISE). We need to discover the actual fear and what the individual fears would happen. 

For example, someone presenting with a fear of flying, which upon investigation, may be a fear of heights, falling, travel sickness, claustrophobia, etc. 

BWRT re-routes old neural pathways in the brain and creates new ones to provide a positive response of the client’s choosing. 

12th August, 2023


Understanding how people tick …

Are you a Warrior, Settler or Nomad?

The following classifications have been developed from Terence Watts’ research into evolutionary psychology, culminating in the book Warriors, Settlers & Nomads, published by Crown House  The three personality types are those designated by Freud, but the Warriors, Settlers, Nomads (WSN) concept looks at a broader range of behaviour.

Nomads always existed because everyone was Nomadic when our ancestors appeared on earth around 150,000- 200,000 years ago.  They lived in small groups and were wandering hunter-gatherers.  Settlers started civilisations and settlements, growing crops and raising animals.  Warriors took control and became leaders of the Settlements.

We all have a bit of each, but one type will be dominant.

So, who are you?   Warrior, Settler or Nomad?

Resolute Organisational Personality (RO) - Warrior type

Intuitive Adaptable Personality (IA) - Settler type

Charismatic Evidential Personality (EC) - Nomad type


Physiology: Fairly straight-faced, few body response patterns, steady gaze. The head is kept fairly still most of the time.

Speech: Unhurried and fairly stead, not the most communicative.

Positive traits: Practical, tenacious & independent. Quick thinkers.

Negative traits: Suspicious, dictatorial, manipulative. Hates being wrong. Has trouble apologising.

Dress: Plain and unfussy, sometimes austere, drab or darkish colours.


Warriors are usually intellectually orientated, logical and analytical. They are ‘thinkies’, not ‘feelies’.

They are governed by their head rather than their heart and not so concerned with what others think of them. 

Warriors like taking charge and are masters at finding the flaw in an argument.

They have no difficulty taking charge and may have a reputation for firmness, with a 'bark worse than their bite'. 

Negatively, they can be intimidating, possessive, cynical and intolerant. They do not suffer fools gladly.


Physiology: Responsive body and head movements, with frequent smiles. A tendency to appear to agree with most that is said to them.

Speech: Modulated and communicative. Good listeners.

Positive: Caring, cheerful, pleasant, tolerant, polite, sensitive, a 'people person'.

Negative: Indecisive, under confident, problems with self belief, a tendency to ‘cut off nose to spite their face’.

Dress: Soft colours and often co-ordinating. Fairly conservative in dress.


Settlers are pleasant and responsive people who are tactful and careful with the feelings of others. 

Confident Settlers are excellent communicators and are not as soft as they appear. The Settler cannot abide injustice and will fight somebody else’s battle more readily than their own.  

If they win their ‘battle’, they often have a ‘let bygones be bygones’ attitude to their ‘enemy’. 

They are intuitive and without equal with regard to having an instinctive grasp of what is happening around them.


Physiology: Nomads are expansive in gesture, often animated and noisy. They laugh easily and are often extroverts with few inhibitions.

Speech: Nomads speak more than listen and are storytellers.

Dress: Individualistic, either ‘designer’ or downbeat, showy or scruffy, and have a ‘style’ of their own.

Positive: Fun-loving, enthusiastic, outgoing, inspiring and optimistic.

Negative:  They may be boastful and prone to exaggerate their successes. Nomads are easily bored and can be petulant. If upset, they may ‘throw their toys out of the pram’!


They delight in being seen as charismatic and tend to be lively and high-spirited, adoring attention with a low boredom threshold.  

They live life to the full and do not ‘let the grass grow', often inspiring others. Nomads are happy when something exciting is occurring or about to. They excel in lecturing or teaching because of their expressive nature and also do well in law and money. Like the Warrior, they do not ‘do’ emotions well, although they may ‘act’ the part.

If you think like a Warrior, be sure your behaviour maintains self-control without resorting to aggression and rudeness. Use the positive part, such as determination, to find the weakness in an argument rather than aggression.

If you think like a Settler, use your communication and understanding skills to enhance your natural friendliness to create rapport, but stand firm against any suggestion that you should settle for a lesser result than you know to be fair!!!

If you think like a Nomad, the best way to handle things is quickly, use light-heartedness when appropriate, and exude confidence even if you are acting. Employ your inspirational powers to the fullest!

We all have traits of the Warrior, Settler and Nomad in our personality, but sometimes we do not act in the mode best suited to a situation.

With an understanding of WSN, we can call on these resources when needed and behave in the mode that is appropriate to the circumstance.  

In other words, use the right tool for the job! 

So, who are you ?

Identifying your predominant personality-type changes the way you approach life. If you know yourself - and, equally important, if you understand other people - you can confidently tackle your career and your personal relationships knowing exactly where you are coming from - and what everyone else is seeking. What this book presents you with is a revolutionary framework with which to comprehend your own needs, and the needs of others. Based upon the concept of evolutionary psychology, it reveals the determinants at the core of our characters - those very skills and psychological attitudes that we have inherited from our ancestors.

Buy this Kindle Book or Paperback Take the TEST and see!